This is a guide to installation and administration for R.
The current version of this document is 1.7.1 (2003-06-16). ISBN 3-901167-52-8
Sources, binaries and documentation for R can be obtained via
CRAN, the "Comprehensive R Archive Network". See the file
RESOURCES in the R distribution for information on
The simplest way is to download the most recent
R-x.y.z.tgz file, and unpack it with
tar xvfz R-x.y.z.tgz
on systems that have GNU
tar installed. On other systems you
need at least to have the
gzip program installed. Then you
gzip -dc R-x.y.z.tgz | tar xvf -
If you need to transport the sources on floppy disks, you can download
R-x.y.z.tgz-split.* files and paste them
together at the destination with (Unix)
cat R-x.y.z-split.* > R-x.y.z.tgz
and proceed as above. If you want the build to be usable by a group of
umask before unpacking so that the files will be
readable by the target group (e.g.,
umask 022 to be usable by all
Sources are also available via anonymous rsync. Use
rsync -rC rsync.r-project.org::module R
to create a copy of the source tree specified by module in the
R of the current directory, where module
specifies one of the four existing flavors of the R sources, and can be
r-release (current released version),
(patched released version), and
r-devel (development version).
(These flavors are described in the R FAQ,
http://www.ci.tuwien.ac.at/~hornik/R/.) The rsync trees are
created directly from the master CVS archive and are updated hourly.
-C option in the
rsync command is to cause it to
skip the CVS directories. Further information on
available at http://rsync.samba.org/rsync/.
R will configure and build under a number of common Unix platforms including i386-freebsd, cpu-linux-gnu for the i386, alpha, arm, hppa, ia64, m68k, powerpc, and sparc CPUs (see e.g. http://buildd.debian.org/build.php?&pkg=r-base), i386-sun-solaris, powerpc-apple-darwin, mips-sgi-irix, alpha-dec-osf4, rs6000-ibm-aix, hppa-hp-hpux, and sparc-sun-solaris.
In addition, binary distributions are available for most common Linux distributions, and for MacOS X (Darwin) with X11. See the FAQ for current details. These are installed in platform-specific ways. So for the rest of this chapter we consider only building from the sources.
First review the essential and useful tools and libraries in Essential and useful other programs, and install those you want or need.
Choose a place to install the R tree (R is not just a binary, but
has additional data sets, help files, font metrics etc). Let us call
this place R_HOME. Untar the source code. This should create
doc, and several more. Issue the
(See Using make if your make is not called
Then check the built system works correctly, by
Failures are not necessarily problems as they might be caused by missing functionality, but you should look carefully at any reported discrepancies. To re-run the tests you would need
make check FORCE=FORCE
More comprehensive testing can be done by
If these commands execute successfully, the R binary will be copied
R_HOME/bin directory. In addition, a shell-script
R will be created and copied to the same
directory. You can copy this script to a place where users can invoke
it, for example to
/usr/local/bin/R. You could also copy the man
R.1 to a place where your
man reader finds it,
/usr/local/man/man1. If you want to install the complete
R tree to, e.g.,
/usr/local/lib/R, see Installation.
Note: you do not need to install R: you can run it from where
it was built.
You do not necessarily have to build R in the top-level source
TOP_SRCDIR). To build in
cd BUILDDIR TOP_SRCDIR/configure make
and so on, as described further below. This has the advantage of always
keeping your source tree "clean". (You may need GNU
Make will also build plain text help pages as well as HTML and
LaTeX versions of the R object documentation (the three kinds can
also be generated separately using
make latex). Note that you need Perl version 5: if this is
not available on your system, you can obtain PDF versions of the
documentation files via CRAN.
rehash if necessary, type R, and read the R manuals
and the R FAQ (files
http://www.ci.tuwien.ac.at/~hornik/R/R-FAQ.html which always has
the latest version).
There is a set of manuals that can be built from the sources,
To make these, use
make dvi to create DVI versions make pdf to create PDF versions make info to create info files (not
You will not be able to build the info files unless you have
makeinfo version 4 or later installed (and some Linux
distributions have 3.12).
The DVI versions can be previewed and printed using standard programs
dvips. The PDF versions can be
viewed using Acrobat Reader or (recent versions of) ghostscript: they
have hyperlinks that can be followed in Acrobat Reader. The info files
are suitable for reading online with Emacs or the standalone GNU Info.
./configure make make check
have been completed successfully, you can install the complete R tree to your system by typing
This will install to the following directories:
where prefix is determined during configuration (typically
/usr/local) and can be set by running
--prefix, as in
make install to install the R executable to
/where/you/want/R/to/go/bin, and so on. The prefix of the
installation directories can be seen in the status message that is
displayed at the end of
configure. You can install into
another directory by using
make prefix=/path/to/here install
To install DVI, info and PDF versions of the manuals, use one or more of
make install-dvi make install-info make install-pdf
To ensure that the installed tree is usable by the right group of users,
umask appropriately (perhaps to
022) before unpacking
the sources and throughout the build process.
bin/windows directory of a CRAN site contains
binaries for a base distribution and a large number of add-on packages
from CRAN to run on Windows 95, 98, NT4, 2000, ME and XP (at
least) on Intel and clones (but not on other platforms).
You do need one of those Windows versions: Windows 3.11+win32s will not work.
Your file system must allow long file names (as is likely except perhaps for some network-mounted systems).
The simplest way is to use
miniR.exe. Just double-click on the icon and follow the
instructions. If you installed R this way you can uninstall it from the
See the R Windows FAQ for more details.
If you want to build this port from the sources, see the file
src/gnuwin32/INSTALL in the source distribution. You will need
to collect, install and test an extensive set of tools: see
http://www.stats.ox.ac.uk/pub/Rtools/ for the current locations.
You may need to compile under a case-honouring file system: we found
samba-mounted file system (which maps all file names to
lower case) did not work. Open a commands window at a directory whose
path does not contain spaces, and run something like
tar zxvf R-1.7.1.tgz cd R-1.7.1\src\gnuwin32 make
sit back and wait (for about 5 minutes on 1GHz PIII with a fast local disc).
For further details, including how to make the documentation and how to
bin/macos directory of a CRAN site contains
archives for a base distribution and a large number of add-on packages
to run under MacOS 8.6 to MacOS 9.1 or MacOS X natively. Just extract
one of these archives in a suitable folder using standard utilities like
Aladdin Stuffit Expander (tm).
There is also a port to MacOS X which is considered to be a Unix variant
in this document. You can find it in the
bin/macosx directory at
of a CRAN site.
This chapter applies to Unix-like and Windows versions of R, but not to the Classic MacOS port.
It is helpful to use the correct terminology. A package is
loaded from a library by the function
library(). Thus a
library is a directory containing installed packages; the main library
R_HOME/library, but others can be used, for example by
setting the environment variable
R_LIBS or using the R function
Packages may be distributed in source form or compiled binary form. Installing source packages requires that compilers and tools (including Perl 5.004 or later) be installed. Binary packages are platform specific and generally need no special tools to install, but see the documentation for your platform for details.
Note that you need to specify implicitly or explicitly the library to which the package is to be installed. This is only an issue if you have more than one library, of course.
To install packages from source on Unix use
R CMD INSTALL -l /path/to/library pkg1 pkg2 ...
-l /path/to/library can be omitted, in which case the
first library in
R_LIBS is used if set, otherwise the main
R_HOME/library is used. (
R_LIBS is looked
for in the environment:
.Renviron is not read by
The Windows equivalent is1
Rcmd INSTALL -l /path/to/library pkg1 pkg2 ...
Alternatively, packages can be downloaded and installed from within
R. First set the option
CRAN to your nearest CRAN
mirror, for example
> options(CRAN = "http://cran.us.r-project.org/")
Then download and install package foo by
Unless the library is specified (argument
lib) the first library
in the library search path is used.
What this does is different on Unix and Windows. On Unix it consults
the list of available source packages on CRAN, downloads the
latest version of the foo sources, and installs it (via
CMD INSTALL). On Windows it looks at the list of binary
versions of packages and downloads the latest version (if any).
install.packages can also install a binary package
from a local
zip file by setting argument
RGui.exe has a menu
Packages with a GUI
update.packages() is the simplest way to ensure that
all the packages on your system are up to date. Set the
option as in the previous section. The
downloads the list of available packages and their current versions,
compares it with those installed and offers to fetch and install any
that have later versions on CRAN.
An alternative way of keeping packages up-to-date is provided by the
packageStatus(), which returns an object with information
on all installed packages and packages available at multiple
repositories (CRAN, local archive, ...). The
summary methods give an overview of installed and available
upgrade method offers to fetch and install outdated
packages. This allows R to fetch packages from several repositories and
keep in sync with all of them, instead of only one CRAN mirror, and is
intended to become the default package manager for future versions of R.
Packages can be removed in a number of ways. From a command prompt they can be removed by
R CMD REMOVE -l /path/to/library pkg1 pkg2 ...
Rcmd REMOVE -l /path/to/library pkg1 pkg2 ...
From a running R process they can be removed by
> remove.packages(c("pkg1", "pkg2"), lib = file.path("path", "to", "library"))
Finally, in most installations one can just remove the package directory from the library.
Note: whereas it is currently possible to install package bundles, one cannot remove these as such--the packages contained in the bundle have to removed individually.
This appendix gives details of programs you will need to build R on
Unix-like platforms, or which will be used by R if found by
You need a means of compiling C and FORTRAN 77 (see Using FORTRAN). Some add-on packages also need a C++ compiler.
You will need Perl version 5.004 or later, available via
http://www.perl.com/CPAN/, to build any of the on-line
Rdindex utility requires version 5.005 or
later, but has been deprecated in favor of the function
in package tools as of R version 1.7.0.)
You will not be able to build the info files unless you have
makeinfo version 4 or later installed.
The typeset documentation needs
The command-line editing depends on the
available from any GNU mirror: you will need a fairly recent version.
The bitmapped graphics devices
png() need the
appropriate headers and libraries installed:
jpeg (version 6b
or later) or
libpng (version 1.2.3 or later) and
(version 1.1.3 or later) respectively.
dev2bitmap devices make use of ghostscript
If you have them installed (including the approrpiate headers),
libbz2 and PCRE will be used: otherwise versions
in the R sources will be compiled in.
The tcltk package needs Tcl/Tk installed: the sources are available at http://www.scriptics.com/. To specify the locations of the Tcl/Tk files you may need the configuration options
or use the configure variables
TCLTK_CPPFLAGS to specify the flags needed for linking against
the Tcl and Tk libraries and for finding the
tk.h headers, respectively.
Versions of Tcl/TK from 8.0 to 8.4.1 have been used successfully.
The linear algebra routines in R can make use of enhanced BLAS (Basic
Linear Algebra Subprograms, http://www.netlib.org/blas/faq.html)
routines. Some are compiler-system-specific (
libsunperf on Sun
libessl on IBM,
vecLib on MacOS
X) but ATLAS (http://math-atlas.sourceforge.net/) is a "tuned"
BLAS that runs on a wide range of Unix-alike platforms. If no more
specific library is found, a
libblas library in the library path
will be used. You can specify a specific BLAS library by the
--with-blas and not to use an external
BLAS library by
For systems with multiple processors it is in principle possible to use
a multi-threaded version of ATLAS. This is currently not supported.
The problem is that
SIGINT signals will not be handled properly
when sent during a multi-threaded ATLAS computation, and this may result
in a segmentation fault. Changes in the R internals are needed to
support the use of threaded libraries; this will hopefully be addressed
in a future release. If despite this warning you still want to use a
multi-threaded ATLAS you can do so by specifying
--with-blas="-lptf77blas -lpthread -latlas"
Note that the BLAS library will be used for several add-on packages as well as for R itself. This means that it is better to use a shared BLAS library, as most of a static library will be compiled into the R executable and each BLAS-using package. In any case, the BLAS library must be usable with dynamically-loadable code.
You will need double-precision and double-complex versions of the BLAS, but not single-precision nor complex routines.
As from R 1.7.0, provision is made for using an external LAPACK
library, principally to cope with BLAS libraries which contain a copy of
LAPACK (such as
libsunperf on Solaris and
vecLib on MacOS
10.2.2). However, the likely performance gains are thought to be small
(and may be negative), and the default is not to search for a suitable
LAPACK library. You can specify a specific LAPACK library or a search
for a generic library by the configuration option
--with-lapack. The default for
--with-lapack is to
check the BLAS library and then look for an external library
-llapack. Sites searching for the fastest possible linear
algebra may want to build a LAPACK library using the ATLAS-optimized
subset of LAPACK. To do so specify something like
--with-lapack="-L/path/to/libs -llapack -lcblas"
since the ATLAS subset of LAPACK depends on
If you do use
--with-lapack, be aware of potential problems
with bugs in the LAPACK 3.0 sources (or in the posted corrections to those
sources). In particular, bugs in
resulted in error messages such as
DGEBRD gave error code -10
(from the Debian
-llapack which was current in late 2002). Other
potential problems are incomplete versions of the libraries: for example
libsunperf from Sun Forte 6.x was missing the entry point for
vecLib has omitted the BLAS routine
As with all libraries, you need to ensure that they and R were
compiled with compatible compilers and flags. For example, this means
that on Sun Sparc using the native compilers the flag
is needed so
libsunperf can be used.
An ATLAS `tuned' BLAS can also be used on Windows: see
src/gnuwin32/INSTALL for how to enable this when building from
source, and R Windows FAQ for adding pre-compiled support to binary versions.
Note that under Unix (but not under Windows) if R is compiled against a non-default BLAS, then all BLAS-using packages must also be. So if R is re-built after ATLAS is installed, then packages such as quantreg will need to be re-installed.
configure has many options: running
will give a list. Probably the most important ones not covered elsewhere are (defaults in brackets)
You can use
--disable-foo for the
You will want to use
--disable-R-profiling if you are building
a profiled executable of R (e.g. with
--enable-R-shlib causes the make process to build R as a
shared library, typically called
libR.so, and to take
considerably longer, so you probably only want this if you will be using
an application which embeds R.
If you need or want to set certain configure variables to something
other than their default, you can do that by either editing the file
config.site (which documents all the variables you might want to
set) or on the command line as
These variables are precious, implying that they do not have to be exported to the environment, are kept in the cache even if not specified on the command line and checked for consistency between two configure runs (provided that caching is used), and are kept during automatic reconfiguration as if having been passed as command line arguments, even if no cache is used.
See the variable output section of
configure --help for a list of
all these variables.
One common variable to change is
R_PAPERSIZE, which defaults to
letter. (Valid values are
If you have libraries and header files, e.g., for GNU readline, in
non-system directories, use the variables
LDFLAGS (for libraries,
-L flags to be passed to the linker) and
(for header files, using
-I flags to be passed to the C/C++
preprocessors), respectively, to specify these locations. These default
/usr/local/include to catch the most
common cases. If libraries are still not found, then maybe your
compiler/linker does not support re-ordering of
-l flags (this has been reported to be a problem on HP-UX with
cc). In this case, use a different compiler (or a
front end shell script which does the re-ordering).
Another precious variable is
R_BROWSER, the default browser, which
should take a value of an executable in the user's path or specify
a full path.
If you find you need to alter configure variables, it is worth noting
that some settings may be cached in the file
config.cache, and it
is a good idea to remove that file (if it exists) before re-configuring.
Note that caching is turned off by default; use the command line
-C) to enable caching.
To compile R, you will most likely find it easiest to use GNU
make. On Solaris 2.6/7/8 in particular, you need a version of
make different from 3.77; 3.79.1 works fine, as does the Sun
make. The native
make is reported to fail on SGI
Irix 6.5 and Alpha/OSF1 (aka Tru64).
To build in a separate directory you need a
make that uses the
VPATH variable, for example GNU
make, or Sun
make on Solaris 2.7/8 (but not earlier).
If you want to use a
make by another name, for example if your
make is called
gmake, you need to set the variable
MAKE at configure time, for example
To compile R, you need a FORTRAN compiler or
FORTRAN-to-C converter (http://www.netlib.org/f2c). The default
is to search for
fc (in that
f2c, and use whichever is found first; if none is
found, R cannot be compiled. The search mechanism can be changed
using the configure variables
F2C which specify
the commands that run the FORTRAN 77 compiler and FORTRAN-to-C
converter, respectively. If
F77 is given, it is used to compile
FORTRAN; otherwise, if
F2C is given, f2c is used even if a
FORTRAN compiler would be be available. If your FORTRAN compiler is in
a non-standard location, you should set the environment variable
PATH accordingly before running
configure, or use the
F77 to specify its full path.
If your FORTRAN libraries are in slightly peculiar places, you should
also look at
LD_LIBRARY_PATH or your system's equivalent to make
sure that all libraries are on this path.
You must set whatever compilation flags (if any) are needed to ensure
integer is equivalent to a C
int pointer and
double precision is equivalent to a C
pointer. This is checked during the configuration process.
Some of the FORTRAN code makes use of
COMPLEX*16 variables, which
is a FORTRAN 90 extension. This is checked for at configure
time4, but you may need to avoid
compiler flags5 asserting
FORTRAN 77 compliance.
For performance reasons6 you may want to choose a FORTRAN 90/95 compiler.
If you use
f2c you may need to ensure that the FORTRAN type
integer is translated to the C type
typedef long int integer;, which will work
on a 32-bit platform but not on a 64-bit platform.
A wide range of flags can be set in the file
config.site or as
configure variables on the command line. We have already mentioned
-I) and any other miscellaneous options for the C and C++ preprocessors and compilers
-L), stripping (
-s) and any other miscellaneous options for the linker
and others include
Library paths specified as
collected together and prepended to
LD_LIBRARY_PATH (or your
system's equivalent), so there should be no need for
To compile a profiling version of R, one might for example want to
MAIN_LDFLAGS=-pg on platforms where
-pg cannot be used
with position-independent code.
Beware: it may be necessary to set
FFLAGS in ways compatible with the libraries to be used: one
possible issue is the alignment of doubles, another is the way
structures are passed.
This interface is experimental and incomplete. It provides a console
and two graphics devices named
console offers a basic command line editing and history mechanism, along
with tool and button bars that give a point-and-click interface to some
R commands. Many of the features of the console are currently
gtk() graphics device is a port of the
device to GDK (the GIMP Drawing Kit). The
device uses the GNOME canvas.
Due to its experimental nature, the GNOME interface for R
will not be built automatically. You must specify it by running
configure with the
--with-gnome option. For example, you might
but please check you have all the requirements first. You need at least the following libraries (or later) installed
audiofile-0.2.1 esound-0.2.23 glib-1.2.10 gtk+-1.2.10 imlib-1.9.10 ORBit-0.5.12 gnome-libs-184.108.40.206 libxml-1.8.16 libglade-0.17
It is preferable to have a complete installation of the GNOME desktop environment. If you use Linux, then this should be provided with your distribution. In addition, packaged binary distributions of GNOME are available from http://www.ximian.com for the most popular Linux distributions and for Solaris.
Remember that some package management systems (such as RPM and
deb) make a distinction between the user version of a package and the
developer version. The latter usually has the same name but with the
-devel. If you use a pre-packaged version of
GNOME then you must have the developer versions of the above
packages in order to compile the R-GNOME interface.
The full list of GNOME options to configure is
This section provides some notes on building R on different Unix-like platforms. These notes are based on tests run on one or two systems in each case with particular sets of compilers and support libraries. Success in building R depends on the proper installation and functioning of support software; your results may differ if you have other versions of compilers and support libraries.
You can build R as a Unix application on MacOS X. You will need the
g77, and the
library. You will also need to install an X sub-system or configure
dlcompat library, and X server
and support libraries are available from the Fink project
(http://fink.sourceforge.net). At the time of writing
g77 were not available as part of the Fink
binary distribution and needed to be installed directly; for example for
fink install g77
vecLib library of MacOS >= 10.2.2 can be used via the
--with-blas="-framework vecLib" --with-lapack
to provide higher-performance versions of the BLAS and LAPACK routines.
gcc 3.1 that appears to be the only way to build R, as
the Fortran support routines in
libg2c cannot be linked into a
dynmaic library. (We have had reports of success with pre-release
R has been built successfully on Solaris 8 aka Solaris 2.8 aka SunOS
g77 and the SunPro WorkShop 6 (aka
Forte 6) compilers and the `Sun ONE Studio 7 Compiler Suite' (aka Forte
7), and less regularly on Solaris 2.5.1, 2.6, 2.7 and 9. GNU
make is needed prior to Solaris 2.7 for building other than in
the source tree, and perhaps even then.
The Solaris versions of several of the tools needed to build R
ld) are in
/usr/ccs/bin, so if using those tools ensure this is in your
gcc 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 generate incorrect code on 32-bit Solaris
builds with optimization, but versions 3.1, 3.2, 3.2.3 and 3.3 work
correctly. At least files
src/modules/devX11.c are affected.
gcc, do ensure that the compiler was compiled for the
version of Solaris in use. (This can be ascertained from
gcc makes modified versions of some header files, and
so (for example)
gcc compiled under Solaris 2.6 will not
compile R under Solaris 2.7. Also, do ensure that it was compiled
for the assembler/loader in use. If you download
http://www.sunfreeware.com then you need to download
binutils too. To avoid all these pitfalls we strongly
recommended you compile
gcc from the sources yourself.
When using the SunPro compilers do not specify
this disables IEEE arithmetic and
make check will
fail. The maximal set of optimization options known to work is
-xlibmil -xO5 -dalign
We have found little performance difference between
cc but considerable benefit from using a SunPro Fortran
f77 combination works well. For
many C++ applications (e.g. package Matrix) Forte 7 requires
-lCstd, which the configure script will add to
SHLIB_CXXLDFLAGS if it identifies the compiler correctly.
To compile for a 64-bit target on Solaris (which needs an UltraSparc chip and for support to be enabled in the OS) with the Forte 6 and 7 compilers we used
CC="cc -xarch=v9" CFLAGS="-xO5 -xlibmil -dalign" F77="f95 -xarch=v9" FFLAGS="-xO5 -xlibmil -dalign" CXX="CC -xarch=v9" CXXFLAGS="-xO5 -xlibmil -dalign"
For 64-bit compilation with
gcc 3.2.x we used
CC="gcc -m64" FFLAGS="-m64 -g -O2" CXXFLAGS="-m64 -g -O2" LDFLAGS="-L/usr/local/lib/sparcv9 -L/usr/local/lib"
Note that using
f95 allows the Sun
libsunperf to be selected: it will not work
f77, nor with
contains both BLAS and LAPACK code, and
recommended for 32-bit builds using
f95, but not for
64-bit builds where on our test system it failed in both Forte 6U1 and
7, albeit in different ways. Our experience has been that ATLAS's BLAS
is faster than
libsunperf, especially for complex numbers.
Some care is needed to ensure that libraries found by
configure are compatible with the R executable and modules, as
the testing process will not detect many of the possible problems. For
32-bit builds under
cc the flag
-dalign is needed for
some of the Sun libraries: fortunately the equivalent flag for
-mno-unaligned-doubles, is the default. In theory,
libraries such as
zlib and the
ATLAS libraries need to be built with a
which could be a problem if static libraries are used. In practice this
seems to give little problem for 32-bit builds.
For a 64-bit build, 64-bit libraries must be used. As the configuration
process by default sets
you may need to set it to avoid finding 32-bit addons (as in the
gcc -m64 example above).
R has been built successfully on HP-UX 10.2 and HP-UX 11.0 using both
native compilers and
gcc. However, 10.2 has not been tested
since R 1.4.0. By default, R is configured to use
g77 on HP-UX (if available). Some installations of
g77 only install a static version of the
that cannot be linked into a shared library since its files have not
been compiled with the appropriate flag for producing position
independent code (PIC). This will result in
failing with a linker error similar to
ld: CODE_ONE_SYM fixup to non-code subspace in file foo.o - shared library must be position independent. Use +z or +Z to recompile.
+Z are the PIC flags for the native
cc.) If this is the case you either need to modify
g77 installation or configure with
to specify use of the native POSIX-compliant FORTRAN 77 compiler.
You may find that
configure detects other libraries that R
needs to use as shared libraries but are only available as static
libraries. If you cannot install shared versions you will need to tell
configure not to use these libraries, or make sure they are
not in the library path. The symptom will the linker error shown in the
last paragraph. Static libraries that might be found and would cause
BLAS use --without-blas Tcl/Tk use --without-tcltk GNOME not built by default libpng use --without-libpng jpeg use --without-jpeglib zlib use --without-zlib
pcre are problematic when building
libR.so, only. These can be avoided by
Some versions of
gcc may contain what appears to be a bug at
-O2 optimization level that causes
> 2 %/% 2  1 > 1:2 %/% 2  0 0 # wrong!!
which will cause
make check to fail. If this is the case, you
CFLAGS to specify
-O as the optimization
level to use.
Some systems running HP-UX 11.0 may have a
gcc that was
installed under HP-UX 10.2. Between versions 10.2 and 11.0 HP-UX
changed its support functions for IEEE arithmetic from the
recommended functions of the IEEE standard to the ones
specified in the C9x draft standard. In particular, this means that
finite has been replaced by
configured for HP-UX 10.2 run on 11.0 will not find
as a result
configure does not recognize the machine as fully
supporting IEEE arithmetic and does not define
when compiling C code. This results in a failure in
check. The best solution is to install a properly configured
gcc. An alternative work-around is to add
You can configure R to use both the native
./configure CC=cc F77=fort77
f90 insists on linking against a static
typically resides in a non-standard directory (e.g.,
/opt/fortran90/lib). Hence, to use
f90 one needs to
add this directory to the linker path via the configure variable
R has been built successfully on IRIX64 6.5 using
f77 for 32-bit
executables and the native compilers for a 64-bit executable. The
./configure CC="cc -64" F77="f77 -64" --with-tcltk=no
was used to create the 64-bit executable. It was necessary to
explicitly omit Tcl/Tk because
configure would find the 32-bit
version but not detect that is was incompatible with a 64-bit build.
A 32-bit build using
check but failed
make test-all-extras in the complex LAPACK
R has been built successfully on an Alpha running OSF1 V4.0 using
g77 fails to configure. The
--without-blas was used since the
native blas seems not to have been built with the flags needed to
SIGFPE's. Currently R does not set a signal handler for
SIGFPE on platforms that support IEEE arithmetic, so
these are fatal.
Attempts to build R on an Alpha with FreeBSD 4.3 have been only
partly successful. Configuring with
-mieee added to both
FFLAGS builds successfully, but tests fail with
SIGFPE's. It would appear that
-mieee only defers these
rather than suppressing them entirely. Advice on how to complete this
port would be greatly appreciated.
On AIX 4.3.3 and AIX 5.1, it was found that the use of "run time
linking" (as opposed to normal AIX style linking) was required. For
this, the R main program must be linked to the runtime linker with the
-brtl linker option, and shareable objects must be enabled for
runtime linking with the
-G linker option. Without these
options, the AIX linker will not automatically link to any shared object
.so extension. Also, the R main program is unable to
dynamically load modules (such as X11) with the
note that linker flags must be escaped using
gcc is used for linking: use
SHLIB_LDFLAGS="-Wl,-G" in this case.
Harald Servat Gelabert <firstname.lastname@example.org> reported success building R 1.7.0 under AIX 5.1 with
CC=xlc F77=xlf CXX=xlC CFLAGS=-O3 -qstrict -qmaxmem=8192 FFLAGS=-O3 -qstrict -qmaxmem=8192 CXXFLAGS=-O2 -qmaxmem=8192 MAIN_LDFLAGS=-Wl,-brtl SHLIB_LDFLAGS=-Wl,-G
but was unable to use the X libraries or the native BLAS (ESSL) and so
There are a number of sources of problems when installing R on a new hardware/OS platform. These include
Floating Point Arithmetic: R supports the POSIX,
SVID and IEEE models for floating point arithmetic. The
POSIX and SVID models provide no problems. The IEEE
model however can be a pain. The problem is that there is no agreement
on how to set the signalling behaviour; Sun/Sparc, SGI/IRIX and ix86
Linux require no special action, FreeBSD requires a call to (the macro)
fpsetmask(0) and OSF1 requires that computation be done with a
-ieee_with_inexact flag etc. On a new platform you must find
out the magic recipe and add some code to make it work. This can often
be done via the file
config.site which resides in the top level
Beware of using high levels of optimization, at least initially. On
many compilers these reduce the degree of compliance to the
IEEE model. For example, using
-fast on the Solaris
SunPro compilers causes R's
NaN to be set incorrectly.
Shared Libraries: There seems to be very little agreement
across platforms on what needs to be done to build shared libraries.
there are many different combinations of flags for the compilers and
loaders. GNU libtool cannot be used (yet), as it currently does not
fully support FORTRAN (and will most likely never support
one would need a shell wrapper for this). The technique we use is to
first interrogate the X window system about what it does (using
xmkmf), and then override this in situations where we know
better (for tools from the GNU Compiler Collection and/or platforms we
know about). This typically works, but you may have to manually
override the results. Scanning the manual entries for
ld usually reveals the correct incantation. Once you know the
recipe you can modify the file
config.site (following the
instructions therein) so that the build will use these options.
If you do manage to get R running on a new platform please let us know about it so we can modify the configuration procedures to include that platform.
If you are having trouble getting R to work on your platform please feel free to get in touch to ask questions. We have had a fair amount of practice at porting R to new platforms ....
configure: Using make, Configuration variables, Installation, Simple compilation
install.packages: Installing packages
make: Using make
R_HOME: Simple compilation
remove.packages: Removing packages
rsync: Using rsync
update.packages: Updating packages
if you have the source-code package files installed
Using the SunPro aka Forte aka Sun ONE
fort77 is the POSIX
compliant FORTRAN compiler, and comes second in the search list.
as well as its equivalence to the
structure defined in
In particular, avoid
-pedantic, which gives confusing error messages.
e.g., to use an optimized BLAS on Sun/Sparc